COINTELPRO- The purpose of the program was, in FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover’s own words, to “expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit and otherwise neutralize” specific groups and individuals. The FBI and police used secret and systematic methods of fraud and force to target American Indian Movement, the Communist Party, the Socialist Worker’s Party, Black Nationalist groups, and many members of the New Left (SDS, and a broad range of anti-war, anti-racist, feminist, lesbian and gay, environmentalist and other groups). Many other groups and individuals seeking racial, gender and class justice were targets who came under attack, including Martin Luther King, Cesar Chavez, Tupac Shakur, Fred Hampton, Huey Newton, the NAACP, and the National Lawyer’s Guild”(Cassidy &Wilmer 1999).
Project MKUltra- From 1953 to 1964, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) conducted dozens of experiments on the effects of biological and chemical agents on American citizens without their knowledge in Project MKUltra. These covert tests included subjecting the unwitting subjects to hallucinogenic drugs and other chemicals in attempt to provoke subjects deepest confessions, convictions or beliefs. American Government became interested in the use of Hallucinogenic drugs, especially LSD in the Military during World War II, as certain American army personal were captured, held by opposing armies drugged and tortured for the purpose of extorting classified or underground information about the war, economic gains and incentives, from the American personel. The Government, sought out Nazi Scientists to hire as the head MKultra scientists. The majority of the unconsenting patients experimented on under Project Mkultra suffer dibilitatingly severe, residual mental and physical effects, if they have not already committed suicide.
MK subjects were told that their hallucinogenic trips would be extended indefinitely if they refused to reveal their deepest secrets, beliefs and convictions. Drugs such as LSD, LSD, morphine, MDMA, mescaline, psilocybin, scopolamine, cannabis, alcohol, sodium pentathol, ergine and deviations of hallucinogenic substances not publicly recognized were all used as a part of MK experiments. The notion that LSD was “the secret that was going to unlock the universe,” and give overwhelming amounts of intel into the human mind, and the way it works and functions. The government was so interested in the effects of LSD as they thought examining human minds at their most open and interactive point could determine for them exactly the way the brain works. This was so valuable to the gov. because they could then learn how to mind control, manipulate and exploit people on a mass level. Subjects were exposed to electronics and hypnotism to see how technology and information could be applied to help facilitate further exploitation and mind control of the masses.
MK experiments were most commonly done on people who were considered unable to fight back or protect themselves, such as prison inmates serving life or long sentences. One prison inmate was given LSD consecutively and multiple doses per day for 177 days in a row. Head MK scientist/chemist Dr. Sidney Gottlieb even strategically subjected his own MK officials and CIA agents to the unexpected dosing of hallucinogenics. This was strategic of him as he knew his officials could not run away anywhere or tell anyone what was going on and get help, as the officials were in on the secret CIA experiments themselves. Gottlieb believed LSD and other hallucinogenics could be given to high officials and in this way affect the course of important meetings, speeches etc. Senator Kennedy had this to say about Project MKUltra experiments taking place at large, well known institutions: “What we are basically talking about is . . . the perversion and corruption of many of our outstanding research centers in this country, with CIA funds, where some of our top researchers were unwittingly involved in research sponsored by the Agency in which they had no knowledge of the background or the support for..Perhaps most disturbing of all was the fact that the extent of experimentation on human subjects was unknown. The records of all these activities were destroyed in 1973, at the instruction of then CIA Director Richard Helms.”
Frank Olsen, an army scientist who had not taken LSD before he was unknowingly dosed went into deep depression after coming down from a surprise trip, and confided in Gottlieb that he needed to expose the wrong doing’s of the CIA, American government and these MK experiments (having witness Gottlieb torture countless other unconsenting people). “Among Olson’s concerns were the development of assassination materials used by the CIA, the CIA’s use of biological warfare materials in covert operations, experimentation with biological weapons in populated areas, collaboration with former Nazi scientists under Operation Paperclip LSD mind-control research, the use of biological weapons (including anthrax) during the Korean War and the use of psychoactive drugs during “terminal” interrogations under a program code-named Project Artichoke. Olsen was then ejected from a 13th story building window that was first called a suicide, but was better known to be murder as his remaining family has claimed for decades.
Several mini projects spawned off of Project MKUltra shortly after MKUltra surfaced, such as Project Artichoke, Project Paperclip, Project MKDelta, Operation Midnight Climax, Project MKChickwit, Project MKOften and many more. Unknowing test subjects ranged from CIA employers to Ken Kesey, The Merry Pranksters and The Grateful Dead
One known MKUltra experiment was the dropping of aerosol LSA from a drone over a small town in France. All occupants were unknowingly dosed and secretly observed by MK personel. The entire town went into a frenzy.
Anarcho-communism- “a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favour of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs,”(Roux 2006).
Anarcho Syndicalism- Anarcho-syndicalism is one of the major forms of social anarchism and can be defined as “building a leaderless mass movement of laborers using direct action to take control of the workplace away from the bosses”(Dixon 2010). The idea behind anarcho-syndicalism is to combine the economic methods of Syndicalism with the revolutionary politics of Anarchism. This leads anarcho-syndicalists to be involved in everything from small propaganda groups to mass revolutionary unions, always organised according to anarchist principles, on a decentralised, federated basis.
Expropriation- The act of taking privately owned property by a group of people that is used for the benefit of the masses. Revolutionary groups robbed banks and collectivized land to sustain their lives in a capitalist system to enable themselves to continue fighting for freedom for the people, rather than having to dedicate all their time and energy to a dehumanizing job, which would leave the masses without anyone to fight for them.
Individual reappropriation- expropriation carried out by an individual person, such as Berkman’s attempt to assassinate Henry Frick.
Propaganda of the Deeds- specific political, direct action that can employ violent resistance tactics as well as non-violent. Berkman’s attempt to assassinate Henry Clay Frick was also an act of the “propaganda of the deeds.” First generation RAF members acted out of the concept of “propaganda of the deeds” when they lit fire to elitist stores.
Espionage Act- An act put into enforcement June 1917, that was used to deport figureheads of the counterculture such as Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman after they publicly scorned the American government and it’s actions in an Issue of her periodical Mother Earth. The act claimed that anyone who was disloyal in any way to the US could (and did) suffer up to 20 years in jail or suffer deportation.